Most of all, be ready to learn. As a term, “genderqueer” encompasses plenty of identities that you may be completely unfamiliar with, like genderfluid individuals or people who are agender. Being genderqueer may be a whole new world to you, and that means there’s a lot of hard truths you’ll have to accept—like the fact that cisgender people have certain privileges in the world that genderqueer, non-binary, and/or transgender people do not have.
+ UN decl. sign.[58]	 De facto unions in Catalonia (1998),[60] Aragon (1999),[60] Navarre (2000),[60] Castile-La Mancha (2000),[60] Valencia (2001),[551] the Balearic Islands (2001),[552] Madrid (2001),[60] Asturias (2002),[553] Castile and León (2002),[554] Andalusia (2002),[60] the Canary Islands (2003),[60] Extremadura (2003),[60] Basque Country (2003),[60] Cantabria (2005),[555] Galicia (2008)[556] La Rioja (2010),[557] and Murcia (2018),[558][559] and in both autonomous cities; Ceuta (1998)[560] and Melilla (2008).[561]	 Legal since 2005[562]	 Legal since 2005[563][564]		 Bans all anti-gay discrimination[64]

“For as long as I can remember, I’ve known that I was interested in non-normative expressions of gender, bored by what ‘masculinity’ means culturally and what it is supposed to look like visually,” genderqueer writer madison moore wrote in March 2016. “But I am comfortable enough in my anatomy and unbothered by cultural norms to wear sequins or skirts or whatever.”
Agender (genderless) Androgyne Bigender Cisgender Non-binary / genderqueer Gender bender Pangender Third gender Akava'ine Bakla Bissu Calabai Fa'afafine Fakaleiti Hijra Kathoey Khanith Koekchuch Māhū Mak nyah Mukhannathun Muxe Albanian sworn virgins Takatāpui Travesti Two-spirit Winkte Trans man Trans woman Transmasculine Transfeminine Transsexual Trigender
The first Roman emperor to have married a man was Nero, who is reported to have married two other males on different occasions. The first was with one of Nero's own freedmen, Pythagoras, with whom Nero took the role of the bride.[122] Later, as a groom, Nero married Sporus, a young boy, to replace the adolescent female concubine he had killed[123][124] and married him in a very public ceremony with all the solemnities of matrimony, after which Sporus was forced to pretend to be the female concubine that Nero had killed and act as though they were really married.[123] A friend gave the "bride" away as required by law. The marriage was celebrated in both Greece and Rome in extravagant public ceremonies.[125]
In 2010, a Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health study examining the effects of institutional discrimination on the psychiatric health of lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals found an increase in psychiatric disorders, including a more than doubling of anxiety disorders, among the LGB population living in states that instituted bans on same-sex marriage. According to the author, the study highlighted the importance of abolishing institutional forms of discrimination, including those leading to disparities in the mental health and well-being of LGB individuals. Institutional discrimination is characterized by societal-level conditions that limit the opportunities and access to resources by socially disadvantaged groups.[45][46]
The gender binary refers to the notion that gender is an either/or proposition. In a world with binary gender, people are either male or female—a binary choice. However, some people identify as neither male nor female, a combination of male and female, or a different gender entirely. The phrase "off the binary" is usually used by people who do not feel as though the male-female binary is relevant to their identity.
Although they both refer to gender identity, transgender and transsexual are terms with distinct meanings. That they are often used interchangeably has led to some confusion. In most cases, a transgender woman is a woman who was designated (also commonly referred to as "assigned") male at birth but who identifies as a woman. Many transgender women may use the term AMAB (assigned male at birth) when talking about their past. She may take steps to transition, but these steps do not necessarily involve surgery or physical alterations. She may dress as a woman, refer to herself as a woman, or use a feminine name. (Note that some trans men may use the term AFAB, or assigned female at birth.)
On 21 February 2017, Minister for Social Dialogue, Consumer Affairs, and Civil Liberties Helena Dalli said that she was preparing a bill to legalise same-sex marriage.[266] The bill was presented to Parliament on 5 July 2017.[267] The bill's last reading took place in Parliament on 12 July 2017, where it was approved 66-1. It was signed into law and published in the Government Gazette on 1 August 2017.[268] Malta became the 14th country in Europe to legalise same-sex marriage.[269][270]

Militant feminists expressed their disdain with an inherently sexist and patriarchal society, and concluded the most effective way to overcome sexism and attain the equality of women would be to deny men any power or pleasure from women. For women who subscribed to this philosophy—dubbing themselves lesbian-feminists—lesbian was a term chosen by women to describe any woman who dedicated her approach to social interaction and political motivation to the welfare of women. Sexual desire was not the defining characteristic of a lesbian-feminist, but rather her focus on politics. Independence from men as oppressors was a central tenet of lesbian-feminism, and many believers strove to separate themselves physically and economically from traditional male-centered culture. In the ideal society, named Lesbian Nation, "woman" and "lesbian" were interchangeable.[122]
Near the Congo River a female who participates in strong emotional or sexual relationships with another female among the Nkundo people is known as yaikya bonsángo (a woman who presses against another woman). Lesbian relationships are also known in matrilineal societies in Ghana among the Akan people. In Lesotho, females engage in what is commonly considered sexual behavior to the Western world: they kiss, sleep together, rub genitals, participate in cunnilingus, and maintain their relationships with other females vigilantly. Since the people of Lesotho believe sex requires a penis, however, they do not consider their behavior sexual, nor label themselves lesbians.[145]
Marriage is an internationally recognized human right for all people. Since 1888 the US Supreme Court has declared 14 times that marriage is a fundamental right for all, according to the American Foundation for Equal Rights. [3] Article 16 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights guarantees "men and women of full age, without any limitation due to race, nationality or religion... the right to marry and to found a family. They are entitled to equal rights as to marriage, during marriage and at its dissolution." [103] Amnesty International states that "this non-discrimination principle has been interpreted by UN treaty bodies and numerous inter-governmental human rights bodies as prohibiting discrimination based on gender or sexual orientation. Non-discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation has therefore become an internationally recognized principle." [104]

In 1980, poet and essayist Adrienne Rich expanded upon the political meaning of lesbian by proposing a continuum of lesbian existence based on "woman-identified experience" in her essay "Compulsory Heterosexuality and Lesbian Existence".[127] All relationships between women, Rich proposed, have some lesbian element, regardless if they claim a lesbian identity: mothers and daughters, women who work together, and women who nurse each other, for example. Such a perception of women relating to each other connects them through time and across cultures, and Rich considered heterosexuality a condition forced upon women by men.[127] Several years earlier, DOB founders Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon similarly relegated sexual acts as unnecessary in determining what a lesbian is, by providing their definition: "a woman whose primary erotic, psychological, emotional and social interest is in a member of her own sex, even though that interest may not be overtly expressed".[128]
Other issues of primary importance for the gay rights movement since the 1970s include combating the HIV/AIDS epidemic and promoting disease prevention and funding for research; lobbying government for nondiscriminatory policies in employment, housing, and other aspects of civil society; ending bans on military service for gay individuals; expanding hate crimes legislation to include protection for gay, lesbian, and transgender individuals; and securing marriage rights for gay and lesbian couples (see same-sex marriage).

Of the fourteen British Overseas Territories, same-sex marriage has been legal in South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands since 2014, Akrotiri and Dhekelia and the British Indian Ocean Territory (for UK military personnel) since 3 June 2014, the Pitcairn Islands since 14 May 2015, the British Antarctic Territory since 13 October 2016, Gibraltar[349] since 15 December 2016, Ascension Island since 1 January 2017, the Falkland Islands since 29 April 2017, Tristan da Cunha since 4 August 2017, and Saint Helena since 20 December 2017. In February 2018, Bermuda passed the Domestic Partnership Act 2018, revoking same-sex marriage, which had been legalised by a May 2017 Supreme Court ruling.[350][351] In June 2018, the Bermuda Supreme Court struck down the parts of the law revoking same-sex marriage, but stay the rule to allow to Government to consider an appeal. On 23 November 2018, the court upheld the Supreme Court's ruling, by which same-sex marriage became again legal in Bermuda.
Factors that contribute to domestic violence include the belief that abuse (physical or verbal) is acceptable, substance abuse, unemployment, mental health problems, lack of coping skills, isolation, and excessive dependence on the abuser.[13] Factors specific to lesbian relationships such as emotional isolation and lack of community ties due to heterosexism and homophobia, minority stress, and the re-victimization of women who have previously suffered abuse also provoke the causes of domestic violence in lesbian relationships.[3] The political context of homophobia and heterosexism is essential for understanding the experience of lesbian victims of domestic violence. Also homophobia is an important factor in shaping the experience of domestic violence in lesbian relationships.[1] For instance, mental health agencies still contain homophobic and heterosexual beliefs which limit the extent of the services provided to the victims.[9] These victims experience violence within the context of a world that is not only misogynistic but is also homophobic.[1]

Many who have not undergone top surgery choose to bind their breasts. There are a few different methods of binding, including using sports bras and specially made binders (which can be vest-type, or wrap-around style). Tape or bandages, although often depicted in popular culture, should never be used for binding as they tighten with wear and compress the ribcage, and could result in injury.[14]


^ The study estimated the total population of gays, lesbians, and bisexuals at 8.8 million, but did not differentiate between men and women. (Gates, Gary [October 2006]. "Same-sex Couples and the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual Population: New Estimates from the American Community Survey", The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation Law and Public Policy, University of California Los Angeles, pp. 1–25.)
Unfortunately, in many places this is hard or impossible for transgender people to change their identity documents, with or without undergoing genital surgery, which is required in many places, contrary to the definition of the Yogyakarta Principles.[10] This is changing, however. Recently the United Kingdom passed the Gender Recognition Act of 2004. This act allows people to have their change of sex officially recognized without surgery. Once changed, they have all the rights, privileges, and responsibilities of their new gender.[source?]
On 3 June 2015, the Supreme Court of Justice of the Nation released a "jurisprudential thesis" that found state-laws defining marriage as a union between a man and a woman unconstitutional. The ruling standardized court procedures across Mexico to authorize same-sex marriages. However, the process is still lengthy and more expensive than that for an opposite-sex marriage, as the ruling did not invalidate any state laws, meaning same-sex couples will be denied the right to wed and will have to turn to the courts for individual injunctions (Spanish: amparo). However, given the nature of the ruling, judges and courts throughout Mexico must approve any application for a same-sex marriage.[280] The official release of the thesis was on 19 June 2015, which took effect on 22 June 2015.[281]
My experiences with dating, both before and after transitioning, have magnified the differences in how courtship and sexual pursuit are modeled for both genders. From an early age boys and girls are taught that relationships are successfully obtained by performing “complementary” roles of cat and mouse, pursuer and pursued, the actor and the acted-upon. Consequently, girls learn to define romance as a noun — a subjective experience brought about by a man’s actions. Boys, on the other hand, learn to define romance as a verb — something they must actively do to earn a girl’s affections. This socialization has immediate implications for all queer romance, but presents an even greater obstacle for a potential lesbian and bisexual pairing, as illustrated by the following quote from a very good friend of mine (who’s also a bi woman):
Theoretical analysis of domestic violence in lesbian relationships is heavily debated. Popular approaches mainly discuss "the comparability of violence in lesbian and gay male relationships (same sex violence,) or draw on feminist theories of gendered power relations, comparing domestic violence between lesbians and heterosexual women".[10] Some theorists also study same sex violence by defining gender as anatomy, and claim that gender is not relevant in any case of domestic violence due to its prevalence in same-sex relationships that is perpetrated as a form of homophobic behavior and occurs without consequence.[10] Other theorists argue that gay men and lesbians still internalize feminine and masculine behaviors, causing lesbians to "mimic traditional heterosexual relationships" and create blatant power dynamics between dominant and submissive partners.[10]
There’s never been a better time to be gay, except in a handful of places where it’s become worse. Gay-rights activists have made historic gains in a fraction of the time it took the movements for civil rights and women’s rights. Two generations ago, the idea that homosexuals could marry was largely unthinkable. Today, same-sex marriage exists in more than two dozen countries. Until 1970, same-sex acts were legal in about 60 countries. Today, the number is roughly double that, leaving 70 nations where they are criminalized. On the other side of the ledger, Nigeria and Russia have raised penalties facing homosexuals in recent years. In Poland, schoolchildren are being taught that being gay is a disease to be cured.
^ Alencar Albuquerque, Grayce; de Lima Garcia, Cintia; da Silva Quirino, Glauberto; Alves, Maria Juscinaide Henrique; Belém, Jameson Moreira; dos Santos Figueiredo, Francisco Winter; da Silva Paiva, Laércio; do Nascimento, Vânia Barbosa; da Silva Maciel, Érika; Valenti, Vitor Engrácia; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Adami, Fernando (2016). "Access to health services by lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons: systematic literature review". BMC International Health and Human Rights. 16 (1). doi:10.1186/s12914-015-0072-9. ISSN 1472-698X. PMC 4714514. PMID 26769484.
In India, a 14th-century Indian text mentioning a lesbian couple who had a child as a result of their lovemaking is an exception to the general silence about female homosexuality. This invisibility disappeared with the release of a film titled Fire in 1996, prompting some theaters in India to be attacked by religious extremists. Terms used to label homosexuals are often rejected by Indian activists for being the result of imperialist influence, but most discourse on homosexuality centers on men. Women's rights groups in India continue to debate the legitimacy of including lesbian issues in their platforms, as lesbians and material focusing on female homosexuality are frequently suppressed.[166]
Adoption Age of consent Conversion therapy bans Hate crimes Housing discrimination Intersex rights Military Transgender Intersex Sexual orientation Employment discrimination by municipality State bans on local anti-discrimination laws Immigration No promo homo laws Public accommodations Religious exemptions Same-sex unions Civil unions Domestic partnerships by municipality Marriage Transgender rights Voting
The 2018 Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruling regarding the legalisation of same-sex marriage in countries that have ratified the American Convention on Human Rights applies to Ecuador. In May 2018, the Ecuador Supreme Court ruled, in a lesbian parenting case, that the IACHR ruling is fully binding on Ecuador and that the country must also implement the ruling in due course.[231] In June 2018, two family judges ruled the country's same-sex marriage ban unconstitutional.[232] However, the Civil Registry has appealed the rulings, preventing their coming into force.[233] Same sex marriage was legalized in Ecuador on 12 June 2019.
Another stock plot device in the 1970s was the gay character in a police drama. They served as victims of blackmail or anti-gay violence, but more often as criminals. Beginning in the late 1960s with N.Y.P.D., Police Story, and Police Woman, the use of homosexuals in stories became much more prevalent, according to Vito Russo, as a response to their higher profiles in gay activism.[247] Lesbians were included as villains, motivated to murder by their desires, internalized homophobia, or fear of being exposed as homosexual. One episode of Police Woman earned protests by the National Gay Task Force before it aired for portraying a trio of murderous lesbians who killed retirement home patients for their money.[248] NBC edited the episode because of the protests, but a sit-in was staged in the head of NBC's offices.[249]
The June 2013 decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in United States v. Windsor striking down the law barring federal recognition of same-sex marriage gave significant impetus to the progress of lawsuits that challenged state bans on same-sex marriage in federal court. Since that decision, with only a few exceptions, U.S. District Courts and Courts of Appeals have found state bans on same-sex marriage unconstitutional, as have several state courts. The exceptions have been a state court in Tennessee, U.S. district courts in Louisiana and Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. The U.S. Supreme Court has agreed to hear appeals from that circuit's decision.

The US Supreme Court ruled 7-2 in the 1974 case Cleveland Board of Education v. LaFleur that the "freedom of personal choice in matters of marriage and family life is one of the liberties protected by the Due Process Clause." US District Judge Vaughn Walker wrote on Aug. 4, 2010 that Prop. 8 in California banning gay marriage was "unconstitutional under both the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses." [41] The Due Process Clause in both the Fifth and 14th Amendments of the US Constitution states that no person shall be "deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law." [111] The Equal Protection Clause in the 14th Amendment states that no state shall "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." [112]
The Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland (CVP/PDC) started in 2011 with gathering signatures for a popular initiative entitled "For the couple and the family - No to the penalty of marriage". This initiative would change article 14 of the Swiss Federal Constitution and aimed to put equal fiscal rights and equal social security benefits between married couples and unmarried cohabiting couples. However, the text aimed to introduce as well in the Constitution for the first time ever the definition of marriage, which would be the sole "union between a man and a woman".[455] On 19 June 2015, the Parliament recommended that voters reject the initiative.[456] The Federal Council also recommended rejecting the initiative.[457][458] The Swiss people voted on the Christian Democrats' proposal in a referendum on 28 February 2016[459] and rejected it by 50.8% of the votes.[460]
Some trans men date heterosexual women, while other trans men date queer-identified women; the latter might be because queer-identified women are less invested in the gender and sexual anatomy of a person when it comes to selecting an intimate partner.[3] It is also common for trans men to have histories with the lesbian community or to feel that they identify better with that community because of its wide acceptance of gender variance, with a number of trans men having identified as lesbian (often as a "butch lesbian") before realizing that they are instead transgender.[2][3][24]
Based in part on research that has been conducted on the adverse effects of stigmatization of gays and lesbians, numerous prominent social science organizations have issued position statements supporting same-sex marriage and opposing discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation; these organizations include the American Psychoanalytic Association and the American Psychological Association.[145]
Same-sex marriage is under consideration by the governments or the courts in Chile, Curaçao, the Czech Republic, Honduras, Hong Kong, Japan, several states in Mexico, the Navajo Nation, Panama, Peru, the Philippines, Switzerland and Venezuela (in both assemblies), with recognition of foreign marriages under consideration in Paraguay. Legal cases have been filed in a number of other countries. A ban on same-sex marriage is under consideration in Guatemala; similar proposed bans or draft opinions in El Salvador and Panama were retired after the IACHR ruling.[156][157]

In 2006, Israel's High Court of Justice ruled to recognize foreign same-sex marriages for the limited purpose of registration with the Administration of Border Crossings, Population and Immigration; however, this is merely for statistical purposes and grants no state-level rights. Israel does not recognize civil marriages performed under its own jurisdiction. A bill was raised in the Knesset (Israeli Parliament) to rescind the High Court's ruling, but the Knesset did not advance the bill. A bill to legalize same-sex and interfaith civil marriages was defeated in the Knesset, 39–11, on 16 May 2012.[397]
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